The History of Kastelorizo dates back to Neolithic Times. Its first inhabitants were the Pelasgians as shown in various findings and ruins of fortresses. It’s called ‘Megisti’ under the name of a settler called ‘Megisteus’. Later it was given the name ‘Kastelorizo’ taken from the Italian words ‘Castello Rosso’ meaning ‘Red Rock’ because of the red color of the rocks where the castle was built on.
The fate of Kastelorizo was the same as the rest of the Dodecanese islands. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, it was taken by the Venetians and Genovizians and was finally sold to the Knights of Rhodes. In 1523 despite the strong fortifications it was taken by the Turks. However, the Kastellorizians ensured certain privileges although under the rule of the sultan. When the Greek Revolution of 1821 occurred, the island had a huge commercial and financial prosperity. A huge number of its ships were involved in the revolution.
In 1830 according to the protocol of London was given back to the Turks. In 1913 the inhabitants rebelled against the tyranny and in 1915 during the First World War, the island of Kastelorizo came into the possession of the French, who used it as a marine base. In 1920 they let it to the Italians who occupied it until the end of the First World War. Finally together with the rest of the Dodecanese islands it was incorporated with the rest of Greece on the 7th of March 1948.
Its two-storey neoclassical houses with the wooden balconies on the waterfront and the majestic domes of the churches certify the previous prosperity of the island. Pictures at the museum depict the huge number of houses that existed. Most of them were bombarded during the Second World War.